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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:43 am

19.
Gene regulation and expres​sion(2 periods)
19.1
− Experiment of Jacob and Monod
− Induced and constitutive enzyme production
− Components of lactose operon and function of each component
− Components of regulator genes: an inducer, a promoter, and an operator
− Components of structural genes: genes Z, Y, and A
Lactose operon
− Effect of presence or absence of lactose on lactose operon
20.
Modern genetics technology (8 periods)
20.1
Genetic engineering/recombinant DNA technology
− Definition
− Definition, importance (examples: EcoRI and BamHI), and nomenclature
20.1.1 Restriction endonuclease/ restriction enzymes
− Restriction site: palindrome
20.1.2 Vectors
− Definition
− Properties of cloning vectors
− Plasmid
− Phage λ (bacteriophage)
− Definition
− Steps in cloning processes
− Isolation of target DNA and vector DNA
− Restriction of target DNA and vector DNA by restriction endonuclease/enzymes
− Insertion of target DNA into vector DNA
− Ligation of target DNA to vector DNA by DNA ligase
− Transformation/transduction of recombinant DNA into host cells
− Amplification
− Screening for transformants
20.1.3 Cloning
− Example: insulin production by E. coli
20.2
Gene libraries and gene banks
− Definition and use
− Gene libraries: genomic and cDNA
− Construction of genomic and cDNA libraries
20.3
Use of recombinant DNA technology
− Definition of transgenic organisms
− Bacteria
− Insulin producers
− Oil composers
− Nitrogen fixation
− Transgenic plants
− Plants resistant to herbicide
− Plants resistant to insect pests
− Transgenic animals
− Producers of α-1-antitrypsin enzyme in milk
− Producers of tissue plasminogen activator in milk
− Producers of human growth hormone in milk
20.4
Other uses
− Definition and brief description
20.4.1 Genetic screening
− Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
20.4.2 Gene therapy
− Restoration of adenosine deaminase enzyme in infants
20.4.3 DNA fingerprinting
− Use in forensic science in identification of individuals (criminal, death, and paternity suit)
− Identification of carriers of defective genes
20.5
Ethics of modern genetics
− Advantages and disadvantages of recombinant DNA technology

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:43 am

H.
TAXONOMY, BIODIVERSITY, AND THEORY OF EVOLUTION
Topic
Explanatory notes
21.
Taxonomy (3 periods)
21.1
Purpose and importance of taxonomy
− Brief description
21.2
Classification system
− Artificial classification system
− Natural classification system
21.3
− Taxonomic rank
− Meaning of taxonomic rank
Taxonomic hierarchy
− Examples of taxonomic hierarchy for plants and animals
21.4
− Methods of constructing dichotomous keys
− Use of dichotomous keys for the purpose of identification of organisms
Dichotomous keys
− Examples of dichotomous keys
21.5
Biological nomenclature
− Binomial system with examples

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:44 am

22.
Biodiversity (16 periods)
22.1
Five kingdom systems
− Definition of biodiversity
22.1.1 Kingdom Prokaryotae:
viruses and bacteria
− Morphological characteristics with examples
22.1.2 Kingdom Protoctista:
(i)
Chlorophyta: one example of unicellular and one example of filamentous
− Morphological characteristics at the phylum
level
(ii)
Phaeophyta: one example of fucoid
(iii)
Rhizopoda: Amoeba
(iv)
Ciliophora: Paramecium
(v)
Zoomastigina: Euglena
22.1.3 Kingdom Fungi: Mucor
− Morphological characteristics at the kingdom level
22.1.4 Kingdom Plantae:
(i)
Bryophyta: Marchantia
(ii)
Filicinophyta: Dryopteris
(iii)
Coniferophyta: Pinus
(iv)
Angiospermophyta: Zea mays and Helianthus
− Morphological characteristics at the phylum
level
22.1.5 Kingdom Animalia:
(i)
Porifera: Sycon
(ii)
Cnidaria: Obelia
(iii)
Platyhelminthes: Taenia
(iv)
Nematoda: Ascaris
(v)
Annelida: Pheretima
− Morphological characteristics at the phylum and class levels
(vi)
Arthropoda:
Insecta: Periplaneta
Arachnida: Lycosa
Crustacea: Penaeus
Chilopoda: Lithobius
Diplopoda: Iulus
Merostomata: Limulus
− Morphological characteristics at the phylum
and class levels
(vii)
Mollusca: Helix
(viii)
Echinodermata: Holothuria
(ix)
Chordata:
Chondrichthyes: Carcharodon
Osteichthyes: Tilapia
Amphibia: Rana
Reptilia: Naja
Aves: Columba
Mammalia: Rattus
− Morphological characteristics at the phylum
and class levels

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:44 am

22.2
Biodiversity in Malaysia
− Definition
22.2.1 Ecosystem diversity
− Types of ecosystem found in Malaysia: tropical forest, mangrove swamp forest, and coastal
22.2.2 Species diversity
− Diversity of plant (flora) and animal (fauna) species with examples: ferns and insects
22.2.3 Genetic diversity
− Genetic variation between population in humans, and plant and animal species
22.3
− Factors which threaten the extinction of biodiversity such as excessive and illegal logging, pollution of rivers and beaches, fish bombing, and the exploitation of mangrove in an unsustainable way
Threat of extinction to biodiversity in Malaysia
− Implications of the extinction of ecosystem, species, and genetic diversities on human life and the environment
22.4
Conservation of biodiversity
− Steps in the conservation of biodiversity in terms of ecosystem, species, and genetics
22.4.1 In situ conservation
− Example: Taman Negara
22.4.2 Ex situ conservation
− Examples: botanical garden, zoo, gene and germplasm banks

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:45 am

23.
Variation and theory of evolution (10 periods)
23.1
Variation
− Definition and importance
23.1.1 Continuous and discontinuous
variation
− Definition, differences, and examples
23.1.2 Source
(i)
− ***ual reproduction
Genetic
− Random assortment of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
2 0
− Crossing-over, chromosome mutation, gene mutation, polygenes, dominant and recessive genes/alleles
− Hybridisation
(ii)
Environment
− Factors and influences
23.2
− Definition, description, importance, and examples
Selection
− Relationship between selection and variation
23.2.1 Natural selection
− Stabilising selection
− Directional selection
− Disruptive selection
− ***ual selection
− Polymorphism
− Breeding of farm animals and crop plants
− Controlled/selective breeding (inbreeding, outbreeding)
23.2.2 Artificial selection
− Human and animal sperm banks
23.3
Speciation
− Definition, description, importance, and examples
23.3.1 Concept of species
− Problems in defining species
− Formation of new species
23.3.2 Speciation process
− Isolation, genetic drift, hybridisation, and adaptive radiation
23.4
Evolution
− Definition, description, importance, and examples
23.4.1 Lamarck’s Theory
− Theory and examples
23.4.2 Darwin-Wallace’s Theory
− Theory and examples
23.4.3 Evidence supporting theory of
evolution
− Paleontology
− Geographical distribution
− Comparative anatomy
− Comparative embryology
− Biochemistry
− DNA homology

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:45 am

I.
ECOLOGY
Topic
Explanatory notes
24.
Ecosystem (6 periods)
24.1
Organisation of life
− Concept, hierarchy, and interaction
24.1.1 Components of life: organisms,
populations and communities,
ecosystems, biomes, and
biospheres
− Definition and examples
− Emphasis on the dynamism of ecosystems
− Definition and examples
24.1.2 Niche and habitat
− Relationship between niche, habitat, and environment
24.2
Biogeochemical cycles
− Sulphur and phosphorus cycles
24.3
Energy
− First and second laws of thermodynamics
24.3.1 Flow
− Definition, one example of ecosystem: pond/ forest
− Efficiency of energy transfer by producers, consumers, and composers
24.3.2 Transfer
− One example of ecosystem: pond/forest

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:45 am

25.
Quantitative ecology (12 periods)
25.1
Population ecology
− Biotic potential
− Natality
− Mortality
− Migration
− Survivorship
− r and K strategies
− Population growth
− Factors limiting population size and distribution
− Liebig’s law
− Shelford’s law
25.2
− Carrying capacity
− Management and conservation of ecosystems
Applied ecology
− Sustainable development; examples: forestry, agriculture, and fishery
25.3
Quantitative methods
25.3.1 Sampling theories
− Definition, description, importance, and
examples
(i)
Central limit theorem
− Practical application
(ii)
Optimum sample size
− Practical application
25.3.2 Types of estimation
− Examples and calculations
(i)
Absolute
(ii)
Relative
25.3.3 Sampling methods
− Quadrat
− Line transect
− Belt transect
− Capture-recapture/mark-release-recapture method
25.3.4 Sampling parameters
− Frequency
− Density
− Coverage

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