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帖子 由 lonelytree 于 周六 五月 22, 2010 10:16 am

Download
如果连接还是过期了呢,可以自己去这个地址下载啊
http://www.mpm.edu.my/bi/main.php?Content=sections&SubSectionID=40&SectionID=39


由lonelytree于周日 八月 01, 2010 7:12 pm进行了最后一次编辑,总共编辑了2次

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帖子 由 lonelytree 于 周六 五月 22, 2010 8:03 pm

如果连接过期了,就请发帖告诉我,我会更新的。谢谢

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帖子 由 lawrence 于 周四 七月 29, 2010 4:11 am

is expired oredi.....can u renew it???thk

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帖子 由 lonelytree 于 周日 八月 01, 2010 7:13 pm

跟新了。。不好意思啊

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:27 am

Content
A.
THE BIOLOGY OF MOLECULES AND CELLS
Topic
Explanatory notes
1.
Basic chemistry of a cell (15 periods)
1.1
Physical and chemical properties and
physiological role
1.1.1 Water
Its important properties as a constituent and medium for life
− Polarity, cohesiveness, density, su***ce tension, specific heat capacity, latent heat of vaporisation, and hydrogen bonding
1.1.2 Carbohydrates
− Reducing and non-reducing sugars
− Aldehyde and ketone groups
Monosaccharides: trioses, pentoses, hexoses
− Structure of triose (glyceraldehyde), pentose ring (ribose and deoxyribose), hexose ring (glucose)
Disaccharides: maltose, sucrose, lactose
− Glycosidic bond
Polysaccharides: starch, cellulose, glycogen
− Polymerisation process (formation of starch and cellulose)
1.1.3 Lipids
− Saturated fatty acids (stearic acid) and unsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid)
Triglycerides: fatty acids and glycerol
− Ester bond and esterification process
Phospholipids
− Structure of lecithin and its importance in cell membrane structure
− Structure of cholesterol and its importance in health
Steroids
− Steroid drug abuse
1.1.4 Proteins
Amino acids
− Basic structure
− Types based on side chain, polar (serine), non-polar (glycine), acidic (aspartic acid), and basic (lysine)
− Peptide bond and polymerisation process
Levels of structure
− Primary, secondary, tertiary, and quarternary structures with examples
− Bonding involved in the formation of proteins
Conjugated proteins
− Fibrous and globular proteins with examples
− Amphoteric, buffer, and colloid
Properties of proteins
− Factors causing denaturation of proteins
− Nucleotide structure
− Phosphodiester bond in the formation of polynucleotide
− Watson and Crick’s model of DNA structure
− Types of RNA: mRNA, rRNA, tRNA
1.1.5 Nucleic acids
− Differences between DNA and RNA
1.1.6 Other biomolecules: ions and vitamins
− Examples and importance
1.2
Movement of substances through membrane
1.2.1 Passive transport
− Definition and examples in living cells
(i)
Diffusion
− Process
(ii)
Facilitated diffusion
− Mechanism of action
− Process
(iii)
Osmosis and water
potential
− Calculations
1.2.2 Active transport
− Definition and mechanism with examples
1.2.3 Endocytosis (pinocytosis and phagocytosis)
− Process and examples
1.2.4 Exocytosis
− Process and examples
1.3
Techniques of analysis
− Basic principles only
1.3.1 Chromatography
− Examples of uses in the analysis of proteins and plant pigments
1.3.2 Electrophoresis
− Examples of uses in the analysis of proteins
1.3.3 X-ray diffraction
− Examples of uses in the determination of protein and DNA structures

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:27 am

2
Structure of cells and organelles (14 periods)
2.1
Prokaryotic cells
− Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
2.2
Generalised eukaryotic cells
− Structure of eukaryotic cells as seen under the electron microscope
− Differences between plant and animal cells
2.2.1 Plant cells
2.2.2 Animal cells
2.3
Cellular components
2.3.1 Membrane, cell wall, and cytoplasm
− Structure and functions of membrane based on the fluid-mosaic model of Singer
2.3.2 Organelles
− Structure, functions, and distribution
(i)
Nucleus: nucleolus, chromosomes, nucleoplasm, and nuclear membrane
(ii)
Rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum
(iii)
Mitochondria
(iv)
Golgi apparatus
− Organisation of chromosomes
(v)
Lysosomes
− Process of lysosome action
(vi)
Ribosomes
(vii)
Chloroplasts
(viii)
Centrioles
(ix)
Microtubules
(x)
Microfilaments
(xi)
Vacuoles
− Chloroplast of higher plants only
2.4
Specialised cells
− Structure, functions, and distribution
2.4.1 Plant cells
(i)
Meristem
(ii)
Parenchyma
(iii)
Collenchyma
(iv)
Sclerenchyma
(v)
Xylem, including tracheids and vessels
(vi)
Phloem, including companion cells and sieve tubes
− Detailed description
2.4.2 Animal cells
− Definition, structure, functions, and
distribution
(i)
Epithelium: squamous,
cuboidal, and columnar
− Simple and stratified types
− Formation of endocrine and exocrine glands
(ii)
Nerves
− General structure of neurons (sensory, interneuron, and motor)
− Differences between muscle types
(iii)
Muscles: smooth,
striated, and cardiac
− Structure of striated muscles as seen under the electron microscope
(iv)
Bone, cartilage, and blood
− Compact bone, hyaline cartilage, erythrocytes, and leucocytes
2.5
Analytical techniques
− Basic principles only
2.5.1 Ultracentrifugation
− Examples of uses in the isolation of cellular components
2.5.2 Microscopy: light and electron
− Phase-contrast microscopes, transmission and scanning electron microscopes, and examples of their uses

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:29 am

3.
Control in cells (7 periods)
3.1
Enzymes
− Definition and properties of enzymes
3.1.1 Catalysis and activation energy
− Meaning of catalysis
− Lowering of activation energy by enzymes in a reaction
3.1.2 Mechanism of action and kinetics
− Lock-and-key model, affinity and Michaelis-Menten constant, and Lineweaver-Burk plot
3.1.3 Cofactors: metal ions, coenzymes, and prosthetic groups
− Definition, examples, and action
3.1.4 Inhibitors: competitive and non- competitive
− Definition, examples, and action
3.1.5 Classification
− Major types according to IUB system: hydrolases, lyases, transferases, isomerases, ligases/synthetases, oxydoreductases; examples of reactions
3.1.6 Technology: enzyme immobilisation and biosensing
− Meaning and examples of uses
3.2
DNA and protein synthesis
3.2.1 DNA as genetic material
− Experiment of Avery and colleagues
3.2.2 Gene concept, one-gene-one- polypeptide hypothesis
− Experiment of Beadle and Tatum
3.2.3 DNA replication
− Experiment of Meselson and Stahl
− Processes involved
− Transcription: processes of mRNA production
3.2.4 Protein synthesis
− Translation: processes of polipeptide production

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:29 am

B.
ENERGETICS
Topic
Explanatory notes
4.
Photosynthesis (9 periods)
4.1
− Reaction and detailed description
− Photoactivation of photosystem I and photosystem II
− Photolysis of water
− Production and roles of NADPH and ATP
Light reaction
− Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation
4.2
− Reaction and detailed description
− CO2 fixation to RuDP
− Production of PGAL until the formation of carbohydrates
− Involvement in the formation of proteins and fatty acids
− Anatomical and physiological differences between leaves of C3 and C4 plants
− Krantz’s anatomy
− Hatch-Slack pathway
− Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)
Dark reaction/Calvin cycle in C3 and C4
plants
− Example: cactus
4.3
− Wavelength and intensity of light, temperature, and carbon dioxide concentration
Factors limiting the rate of photosynthesis
− Compensation point

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:30 am

5.
Respiration (7 periods)
5.1
Aerobiosis
− Glucose phosphorylation, fructose diphosphate production
− Splitting into phosphoglyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone phosphate
− Conversion of phosphoglyceraldehyde to pyruvate and production of ATP and NADH
5.1.1 Glycolysis
− Substrate level phosphorylation
− Formation of acetyl coenzyme A, formation of citrate, reformation of oxaloacetate from citrate via α-ketoglutarate and succinate, with emphasis on the formation of NADH, FADH2, and GTP, and release of carbon dioxide
5.1.2 Krebs cycle/tricarboxylic acid cycle/citric acid cycle
− Calculations of total ATP production
− Electron flow from NADH/FADH2 via flavoprotein, coenzyme Q, and cytochrome to oxygen with the production of ATP and water
5.1.3 Electron transport system
− Effects of inhibitors (cyanide and carbon monoxide)
5.2
− Differences between plants and animals: ethanol production in plants and lactic acid production in animals
Anaerobiosis
− Use of fermentation in industry with examples

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:30 am

6.
Nutrition (2 periods)
6.1
Autotroph
6.1.1 Chemosynthesis
− Concept with examples
6.1.2 Photosynthesis
− Refer to topic 4 (Photosynthesis)
− Brief description of photosynthesis in bacteria
6.2
Heterotroph
− Concept with examples
6.2.1 Holozoic
6.2.2 Saprophytic
6.2.3 Parasitic

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:31 am

C.
GASEOUS EXCHANGE, TRANSPORT, AND HOMEOSTASIS
Topic
Explanatory notes
7.
Gaseous exchange (4 periods)
7.1
Animals
7.1.1 Gaseous exchange in mammals
− Processes and structures involved
− Haemoglobin
− Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide
− Partial pressure and Bohr effect
− Oxygen dissociation curves
7.1.2 Breathing cycle
− Mechanism of breathing control
− Chemoreceptor
− Tidal volume, vital capacity, total lung capacity, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, residual volume
7.2
Plants
− Structure and functions
7.2.1 Stomata
− Mechanism of stomatal opening and closing based on the starch-sugar hypothesis and K+ ions accumulation hypothesis

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:31 am

8.
Transport (6 periods)
8.1
Animals
− Definition of systole and diastole
8.1.1 Cardiac cycle
− Changes in pressure and volume in aorta, left atrium, and left ventricle
8.1.2 Control of heart beat
− Sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes
− Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves
− Detailed description of heart beat
− Hypertension, arterioschlerosis, and myocardial infarction
8.1.3 Cardiovascular diseases
− Meaning, causes, and prevention
8.2
Plants
− Uptake of water and ions by roots
− Transpiration
− Root pressure and cohesion-tension theory
− Mechanism of transport based on water potential
8.2.1 Xylem and ascent of sap
− Pathways − apoplast, symplast, and vacuoles
8.2.2 Phloem and translocation
− Mass flow/pressure flow hypothesis (Münch model), electro-osmosis, cytoplasmic streaming, and peristaltic waves

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:32 am

9.
Homeostasis (6 periods)
9.1
− Definition and importance
− Basis of control of biological systems
− Positive and negative feedback mechanisms
Concept of homeostasis
− Emphasis on temperature regulation (endothermic and ectothermic)
− Emphasis on control of blood glucose level (role of insulin) and its relationship with diabetes mellitus
− Calculation of pressure in movement of fluid between blood capillaries and tissues
9.2
− Structure and functions in mammals
Liver
− Cori cycle and ornithine cycle; emphasis on the entrance of amino groups into the cycle and the production of urea

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:33 am

9.3
Osmoregulation
9.3.1 Animals
(i)
− Detailed process of urine formation
Kidney
− Structure and functions of nephron and related blood vessels
(ii)
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
− Role and mechanism of action
(iii)
Control of blood Na+ ions and pH
− Mechanism of control
9.3.2 Plants
(i)
Role of stomata in the regulation of water loss
− Refer to topic 7.2.1 (Stomata)
(ii)
Adaptation of plants to the environment
− Morphology, anatomy, and physiology of xerophytes, hydrophytes, halophytes, and mesophytes, with examples

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:36 am

D.
CONTROL AND COORDINATION
Topic
Explanatory notes
10.
Nervous system (6 periods)
10.1
− Organisation of nervous system in mammals
− Formation of resting and action potentials
− Characteristics of nerve impulse and definition of related terms
(a) Generation, characteristics, and transmission of impulse
− Mechanism of transmission and spread of impulse along the axon
− Structure of synapse and role of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine
− Mechanism of impulse transmission across synapses
(b) Synapses
− Comparison between mechanisms of impulse transmission across synapse and along the axon
− Structure of neuromuscular junction and sarcomere
− Roles of sarcoplasmic reticulum, Ca2+ ions, myofibril, and T tubule in muscle contraction
− Sliding filament hypothesis
(c) Neuromuscular junctions
− Mechanism of muscle contraction: roles of actin, myosin, and troponin
10.2
− Organisation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems and their relationship with the central nervous system
− Structure, functions, and examples
Autonomous nervous system in mammals
− Comparison between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
10.3
− Mechanism of action of drug on nervous system and neuromuscular junctions
Drug abuse
− Examples: cocaine and kurare

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:36 am

11.
Hormone/chemical coordination (5 periods)
11.1
Humans
− Mechanism of hormone action via gene activation; examples of steroid hormones
− Mechanism of non-steroid hormone via activation of cyclic AMP system (cascade effect); example: adrenaline
11.1.1 Hormonal action
− Comparison between the two action mechanisms
− Site of production and role of hormones in oestrus cycle
11.1.2 Role of hormones in reproduction
− Site of production and role of hormones during pregnancy
11.2
Plants
− Role of hormones in plant growth and development
11.2.1 Auxin
11.2.2 Gibberellin
11.2.3 Cytokinin
11.2.4 Abscisic acid (ABA)
11.2.5 Ethene
− Growth of organs
− Root and shoot induction
− Apex and bud dominance
− Seed dormancy
− Flowering
− Defoliation
− Senescense
− Fruit ripening
− Stomatal mechanism
− Parthenocarpy
− Interaction between hormones; example: apex dominancy 1

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:36 am

11.3
− Definition of phytochrome
− Mechanism of phytochrome action
− Photoperiodism
Phytochromes and the effect of light
on flowering
− Role of phytochromes in photoperiodism and flowering

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:37 am

E.
IMMUNE SYSTEM
Topic
Explanatory notes
12.
Immunity (4 periods)
12.1
Antibody, antigen, epitope, cell-mediated response, humoral immune response
− Definition and description
12.2
− Organisation of lymphatic system and formation of lymphatic fluid
Lymphatic system
− Relationship between lymphatic system and immunity
12.3
− Roles of macrophages, T-cells, and B-cells
Development of immunity
− Mechanism of cell-mediated response (T-cells) and humoral immune response (plasma cells)
12.4
− Foreign tissue/graft rejection by the body
Concept of self and non-self
− Application of concept in medicine (organ transplant)
12.5
− Causes, causing agent (HIV), symptoms, and prevention of AIDS
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
− Mechanism of HIV infection

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:38 am

F.
REPRODUCTION, DEVELOPMENT, AND GROWTH
Topic
Explanatory notes
13.
Reproduction (7 periods)
13.1
***ual reproduction
13.1.1 Plants
(i)
Algae: Spirogyra
− Refer to topic 22 (Biodiversity) for morphological characteristics
(ii)
Bryophyta: Marchantia
− Structure of ***ual reproductive organ
(iii)
Filicinophyta: Dryopteris
(iv)
Coniferophyta: Pinus
(v)
Angiospermophyta: Caesalpinia
− Life cycle with emphasis on ***ual reproduction
1 1
− Refer to topic 22 (Biodiversity) for morphological characteristics
− Structure of ***ual reproductive organ
13.1.2 Fungi: Mucor
− Life cycle with emphasis on ***ual reproduction
13.1.3 Animals
(i)
Ciliophora: Paramecium
− Refer to topic 22 (Biodiversity) for
morphological characteristics
(ii)
Cnidaria: Hydra
(iii)
Annelida: Pheretima
− Diversity of ***ual reproductive systems and
overall comparison
(iv)
Arthropoda: Periplaneta
− Mechanism of fertilisation (internal and external)
(v)
Amphibia: Rana
− Oviparity, ovoviviparity, and viviparity
(vi)
Reptilia: Naja
(vii)
Osteichthyes: Tilapia
(viii)
Aves: Columba
(ix)
Mammalia: Rattus
13.2
A***ual reproduction
− Definition and examples only
13.2.1 Parthenogenesis
− Aphis and Apis
13.2.2 Pedogenesis
− Amphioxus
13.2.3 Polyembriony
− Fasciola
13.2.4 Sporulation
− Dryopteris and Plasmodium
13.2.5 Budding
− Hydra and Saccharomyces
13.2.6 Binary fision
− Amoeba
13.2.7 Regeneration
− Planaria
13.2.8 Vegetative
− Allium, Solanum, Yucca, Zingiber

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:38 am

14.
Development (6 periods)
14.1
Animals
− Brief description of major stages
− Beginning after fertilisation from cleavage to organogenesis (blastula and gastrula)
14.1.1 Embryology
− Organ formation from ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
− Roles of placenta, chorion, amniotic fluid, and allantois
14.1.2 Human foetal development
− Roles of progesterone and oestrogen
14.1.3 Parturition process in humans
− Roles of progesterone, oestrogen, oxytocin, and prolactin
14.2
Plants
− Development of seeds and fruits after fertilisation
14.2.1 Seed development
− Structure of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds
14.2.2 Seed germination
− Mobilisation of nutrients after imbibition (role of giberrelin)

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:39 am

15.
Growth (5 periods)
15.1
Measurement
− Parameters and methods of measurement (suitabilities and problems)
15.2
Types of growth curve
− Absolute growth curve
− Absolute growth rate curve
− Relative growth rate curve
15.3
− Limited growth (human)
− Unlimited growth (perennial plants/woody saka)
− Allometric growth (human)
− Isometric growth (fish)
Growth pattern
− Intermittent growth (insect)
15.4
− Definition
Ecdysis and metamorphosis
− Role of hormones (neurosecretion, juvenile hormone, and ecdysone)
− Ecdysis and metamorphosis in insects
15.5
Dormancy
− Concept, importance, and examples
15.5.1 Animals
− Hibernation, aestivation, and diapause
− Seed dormancy
15.5.2 Plants
− Factors affecting seed dormancy and methods of overcoming them

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:39 am

G.
GENETICS
Topic
Explanatory notes
16.
Transmission genetics (10 periods)
16.1
Mendelian genetics
− Definition of the terms gamete, gene, allele, dominant and recessive alleles, homozygote, heterozygote, fenotype, genotype, filial generation (P1, P2, F1, F2), types of crosses (test cross, back cross, reciprocal cross, selfing), and pure breeding 1 3
− Mendel’s experiment on monohybrid and dihybrid crosses/inheritance
− Characteristics of pea plants used by Mendel
− Monohybrid cross and its results
− Mendel’s first law (Law of Segregation) and its relation to meiosis
16.1.1 Monohybrid
− Calculations of genotypic and phenotypic ratios (Punnett square method)
− Dihybrid cross and its results
− Mendel’s second law (Law of Independent Assortment) and its relation with meiosis
16.1.2 Dihybrid
− Calculations of genotypic and phenotypic ratios until F2 generation (Punnett square and branch/fork methods)
16.2
Modification of Mendelian genetics
− Crosses that result in ratios differing from the classic Mendelian 3:1 and 9:3:3:1 ratios
− Definition
− Example of inheritance: MN blood group in humans
16.2.1 Codominance
− Calculations of genotypic and phenotypic ratios
− Definition
− Example of inheritance: Antirrhinum (snapdragon) flower color
16.2.2 Incomplete dominance
− Calculations of genotypic and phenotypic ratios
− Definition
− Example of inheritance: human ABO blood group
16.2.3 Multiple alleles
− Calculations of genotypic and phenotypic ratios
− Definition
− Example of inheritance: coat color in mice
16.2.4 Lethal genes
− Calculations of genotypic and phenotypic ratios
− Definition
16.2.5 Polygenes
− Example of inheritance: height in humans
16.2.6 Linked genes
− Definition of linked genes and ***-linked genes
1 4
− Effect of crossing-over on ratio of dihybrid crosses
− Parental and recombinant phenotypes
− Examples: Drosophila eye color and haemophilia in humans
− Calculations of genotypic and phenotypic ratios
− Pedigree analysis
− *** determination in humans
16.2.7 Epistasis
− Definition and examples only
16.3
− Calculations of distance between two loci based on percentage of crossing-over
− Examples of calculations for Drosophila
Genetic mapping
− Determining the relative position of a gene on a chromosome based on percentage of crossing-over

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:40 am

17.
Mutation (4 periods)
17.1
Classification
− Spontaneous and induced
− Examples of mutagens
17.2
Gene mutation
− Mutation at DNA level
17.2.1 Substitution
− Definiton
− Example: sickle-cell anaemia
17.2.2 Insertion/Addition
− Definition
− Frameshift mutation
17.2.3 Deletion
− Definition
− Frameshift mutation
− Example: thalassaemia major
17.2.4 Inversion
− Definition
17.3
Chromosomal mutation
− Chromosomal aberration
− Aneuploidy and euploidy/polyploidy
− Definition of autosome and *** chromosome
17.3.1 Change in chromosome number
Aneuploidy - 2n ± chromosome
Monosomy - 2n − 1 chromosome
Trisomy - 2n + 1 chromosome
Tetra-, penta-, … - 2n + 2, 2n + 3, …




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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:41 am

Euploidy
Diploidy
Triploidy
Tetra-, penta-, …
Polyploidy
Multiple of n
2n
3n
4n, 5n, …
3n, 4n, 5n, …
Autopolyploidy
Multiplication due to the same genome
Allopolyploidy
Multiplication due to different genome

− Definition
− Non-disjunction during meiosis
− Abnormalities of autosome number
− Monosomy − resulting in sterility and retarded growth
− Trisomy: Down syndrome (trisomy 21)
(i)
Aneuploidy
− Abnormalities of *** chromosome number
− Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY)
− Turner syndrome (45,X)
− Definition of euploidy/polyploidy, autopolyploidy, and allopolyploidy
(ii)
Euploidy/poliploidy
− Examples in plants

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帖子 由 E^e 于 周四 十月 21, 2010 11:42 am

17.3.2 Change in chromosome
structure
(i)
Inversion
− Definition
(ii)
Translocation
− Definition
(iii)
Deletion
− Definition
(iv)
Duplication/multiplication
− Definition
18.
Population genetics (3 periods)
18.1
− Concept of gene pool, allele and genotype frequencies in a population
Concept of gene pool
− Relationship between population genetics and evolution
18.2
− Genetic equilibrium and allele frequency
− Requirements for genetic equilibrium
− Large-sized population
− Random mating
− No mutation
− No migration
− Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium:
p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 and p + q = 1
Hardy-Weinberg law
− Calculations of allele and genotype frequencies in a population

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